Lexique.

 

Definition

Arthropodes: Of the Greek arthron "articulation" and podos "foot", form a junction of invertebrate animals (such as insects, spiders, or shellfish). The body of the arthropods is made of articulated segments, covered with a rigid cuticule, which constitutes their external skeleton made up of chitin. The growth is carried out by successive moults.

Abdomen: Posterior part of the body of the arthropods which follows the thorax.

Acarina: Subclass of Arachnida including/understanding mites and ticks and including the parasites of the plants, the animals and the men, like several important vectors of diseases.

Article: Each fragment of the palpi and the tarsi in the arthropods.

Bacterium: Unicellular microscopic organics which does not produce chlorophyl.

Céphalothorax: Part former of the body, formed of the head and the welded thoraxes of Arachnida.

Chélicérate: (chele = grip and kero horn), Group of arthropods which have cephalic appendices called chélicères, in the shape of hooks at the spiders or grips in the scorpions.

Chitin: Organic substance of structure similar to that of the cellulose (polysaccharide), constituting cuticule arthropods.

Coxa: First article of the leg; articulate yourself with the body. Sometimes named hip.

Cuticule: External membrane of certain arthropods which contains chitin but not cells.

Cycle: Life Sequence of operations which occurs during the life of an organization.

Density: (Populations of insect): A number of insects per measuring unit (for example, coleopters per square meter).

Diapause: Physiological state of metabolism, growth, and development stopped which occurs with a particular stage in the cycle of life of an organization.

Sexual dimorphism: Difference in the form, cuts or the color of the two sexes of the same species.

Dormancy: Period occurring in the cycle of life of an organization when the growth, the development, and the reproduction are removed.

Ecology: Study of the correlation of an organization with its environment.

Ectoparasite: Parasite externe.Encapsulation. Entourage of an invading body, such as egg of a parasite, by hemocytes of insect (cells of blood) and the formation of a protective capsule.

Species: Group individuals similar of structure and able to intersect and produce the fertile offspring. They are different of structure of others such groups and do not intersect with them.

Exosquelette: External skeletal structure or of support on the outside of the body of the arthropods.

Exotic: Presented of a country or a different continent.

Family: Taxonomic subdivision of an order, containing a group of kinds.

Femur: Third article of the leg, located between the trochanter and the tibia.

Gene: Hereditary biochemical unit, often coding for a whole protein.

Generation: Period given in the cycle of life at the same stage of the life in the offspring. Typically of egg to egg.

Genitalia: Together of the genital apparatus.

Genre,Kind : Group species dividing one or a certain number of characteristics.

Habitat: Medium which has the favorable conditions the life of an animal or vegetable species.

Hermaphrodite: To have the male and female sexual organs in an individual.

Hyperparasite: Parasite whose host centre is another parasite.

Imago: Arthropod arrived to its complete development and able to reproduce.

Instar: Period distinct in the development from an organization.

Native: Of local origin, intentionally or accidentally not presented.

Larva: Form not blackberry (larva) of a fly or a wasp, missing legs and of a well developed head.

Progressive metamorphosis: Type of development of insect in which there is no prolonged stage of rest (chrysales). The three stages are: egg, nymph, and adult.

Metabolism. Metabolic: Chemical changes which occur in alive cells to provide energy for essential activities and to assimilate the new material.

Microbial: Microscopic organization; a germ.

Morphology: Form or structure of an organization.

Multivoltine: More one to have brooded or generation per season.

Mycelium: Filamentous mass interlaced which makes the vegetative part of a mycète.

Myriapodes: Classify animals arthropods whose body is made of rings carrying each one one or two pairs of legs.

Nematode: Oval worm and cylindrical parasite in the animals, insects, in the ground, water.

Ocelles: Simple eyes on some adult and larval insects. In general three, which forms a dorsal reversed triangle, whose function is obscure.

Order: Taxonomic subdivision which contains groups of families or superfamilles.

Parasite: Animal organization or plant which lives with the costs of an other, carrying to him damage but without destroying it, during a certain part of its cycle of life.

Parasitoïde: Alive animal on others, consuming all or majority its fabrics and thereafter killing them.

Parthenogenesis: Reproduction without fecundation, of egg to the adult, without the intervention of a male.

Pédipalpe. The pédipalpes are the second pair of appendix of the céphalothorax in Arachnida, including six articles: the coxa, the trochanter, the femur, the patella, the tibia and the tarsus. It serve not does the locomotion.

Phéromone: Substance, which is released by an individual and causes a specific reaction has other individuals of the same species.

Phylum: Great division of the animal world or vegetable.

Poison of contact: Pesticide which is absorbed by the wall of body, in opposition to one which must be introduced.

Polyembryonic (eggs): Simple egg which divides to form two (often hundreds) identical embryos or more.

Polyembryony: To have several embryos. Population. Group individuals of the same species in a given space and time.

Predator: Animal which attacks and feeds from other animals, normally killing several individuals during his cycle of life.

Protozoon: Microscopic organization which is mainly watery and includes many parasitic forms.

Sclérite: Part hardened or sclerified of the wall of the body, limited by a joining or a membrane.

Scorpion: Animal arthropod of the Class of Arachnida equipped with a pair of grips and whose tail carries a poisonous pivot.

Segment: Subdivision of the body of an arthropod.

Spiracle: Mark Each opening of the ventral area (scorpion) of the body by where the air penetrates in the tracheas.

Septicaemia: Poisoning of blood caused by the pathogenic organizations.

Spore: Reproductive structure developing in certain bacteria and mycètes which is strongly resistant to the environmental influences but which will become active under suitable conditions.

Stereophony microscope: Optical apparatus which offers several enlargements and which gives a vision in relief of the objects.

Sternum: Ventral area of a segment of the body.

Tarsus: Part distal of the leg, attached at the end of the tibia. Generally formed from two to five articles, seldom of only one. Carry the claws.

Tegument: External cover of the body of insect which includes the cuticule and the skin.

Terricole: Says certain animals which live in the ground or the mud.

Thorax: Part of the body of an arthropod or others carrying the locomotor bodies. Located between the head and the abdomen.

Tibia: Fourth article of the leg, located between the coxa and the femur.

Topography: Chart of a ground, a portion of territory, with the indication of the relief.

Trochanter: Second article of the leg, located between the coxa and the femur.

Univoltine: Only one to have brooded or generation per season.

Vector: An organization able to carry and transmit a pathogenic agent of a host centre to the other.

Virus: Various pathogenic microbes submicroscopic which can only reproduce has the interior an alive cell.

 

 

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